Citation / DOI


Citation and DOI

Publications based on RDC microdata have to be cited correctly. The correct citation is also determined in the user contracts. When DOI were introduced, the citation that has to be used was adjusted to fit it.

The following citation has to be used for publications based on official microdata:

Source: DOI: [DOI of used statistic(s)], own calculations.

In German language publications, the following citation has to be used:

Quelle: DOI: [DOI der verwendete(n) Statistik(en)], eigene Berechnungen.

If several survey years contribute to a result and these are not registered as a panel dataset with a special DOI then the declaration can be abbreviated.

Example: The microcensus years 2005 to 2015 are to be used via remote execution in German language. The datasets have not yet been revised. The citation can be done in the following abbreviated form: “Source: DOI: 10.21242/12211.2005. to 10.21242/12211.2015., own calculations.”


If the old citation rule is determined in you user contract then it can be used alternatively:

Source: RDC of the Federal Statistical Office and Statistical Offices of the Länder, [name of statistic used], [survey year(s) YYYY-YYYY], own calculations.

Or for German language publications:

Quelle: FDZ der Statistischen Ämter des Bundes und der Länder, [Name der Statistik], [JJJJ-JJJJ], eigene Berechnungen.

Because of the higher accuracy we do, however, recommend the use of the DOI-based citation..

General information on DOI

A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is a unique and durable identifier. It offers the possibility to identify digital objects precisely and version-specific. Objects, like in case of the RDC the metadata belonging to a product, are then permanently detectable – independent of a change in the memory location like it can occur, for example, when a homepage is relaunched.

The Registration agency for social and economic data (da|ra), via which the RDC data are registered, offers further information on DOI.

DOI in the RDC

The RDC use DOI to identify the data products they offer. They use a meaningful coding for the registration of their products. The RDC DOI can be read with the following key:


The following contents stand behind the single elements:

  • Issuing Agency: The issuing agency for the RDC DOI is the Registration agency for social and economic data (da|ra). It is coded with the number 10.
  • Data Owner: The RDC of the Federation and the Federal States are marked with the code 21242.
  • EVAS: The “Integrated list of all statistics of the Federation and the federal states” (Einheitliches Verzeichnis aller Statistiken des Bundes und der Länder, short: EVAS); it serves as a central identifier of a statistic.
  • Year: Survey year in which a statistic was conducted. For panel data or statistics that involve several years, the latest year is used.
  • Month: Coding of the survey month for monthly statistics, 00 for yearly statistics.
  • Product Type: More detailed specification of the dataset that follows a permanently assigned key. The most common codes are 00 (cross-sectional data) and 01 (panel data).
  • Way Of Access: Coding of the way of access according to the following key:
    1. On-Site way of access
    2. Safe centre, if differing from remote access
    3. Scientific Use File
    4. Public Use File
    5. Campus File
  • Language: Coding of the language version according to the following key:
    1. German
    2. English
  • Version: Version number of the data product, is determined by the RDC

You find the precise DOI of the statistic(s) you use in your user contract and in our internet offering on the according data product page.